Important People – Canadian Citizenship Test Help
Here is a list of the important people referred to in the Discover Canada Study Guide, listed below in alphabetical order:
ALTMAN, Sidney is a Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
ARCAND, Denys is a famous Canadian filmmaker whose work has won international awards.
ASHEVAK, Kenojuak pioneered modern Inuit art with etchings, prints and soapstone etchings.
BAILEY, Donavan is a famous Canadian track and field athlete and Olympic medalist. He is a world record sprinter and double Olympic gold medalist.
BALDWIN¸ Robert was a reformer after the 1837-38 rebellion who worked with Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine and Joseph Howe as well as British governors toward responsible government.
BALSILLIE, Jim is a famous Canadian inventor and businessman, and together with Mike Lazaridis, founder of Research in Motion (RIM), a wireless communications company known for its most famous invention, the Blackberry.
BANTING, Sir Frederick of Toronto and Charles Best discovered insulin, a hormone used to treat diabetes that has saved 16 million lives worldwide.
BELL, Alexander Graham is one of the most famous of Canadian inventors. He hit on the idea of the telephone at his summer house in Canada.
BEST, Charles and Sir Frederick Banting discovered insulin, a hormone used to treat diabetes that has saved 16 million lives worldwide.
BISHOP, Billy – Flying ace Captain Billy Bishop, born in Owen Sound, Ontario, earned the V.C. in the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War, and was later an honorary Air Marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force.
BOMBARDIER, Joseph-Armand is one of the most famous of Canadian inventors. He invented the snowmobile, a light-weight winter vehicle.
BROCKHOUSE, Bertram is a Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
BRANT, Joseph led thousands of Loyalist Mohawk Indians into Canada during the American Revolution in 1776.
BROCK, Major-General Sir Isaac led British troops and worked with Chief Tecumseh of the Shawnee first nation to defeat the American invasion of Canada from 1812-1814. He captured Detroit but was killed while defending against an American attack at Queenston Heights near Niagara Falls, a battle the Americans lost.
BUCHAN, John, the 1st Baron Tweedsmuir – the 15th Governor General of Canada (1935-1940) who promoted unity in diversity. “Immigrant groups,” he said, “should retain their individuality and each make its contribution to the national character.” Each could learn “from the other, and … while they cherish their own special loyalties and traditions, they cherish not less that new loyalty and tradition which springs from their union.”
CABOT, John was an Italian immigrant to England, was the first to map Canada’s Atlantic shore, setting foot on Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island in 1497 and claiming the New Founde Land for England. European exploration began in earnest in 1497 with the expedition of John Cabot, who was the first to draw a map of Canada’s East Coast.
CARLETON, Sir Guy (Lord Dorchester) as Governor of Quebec, defended the rights of the Canadiens, defeated an American military invasion of Quebec in 1775, and supervised the Loyalist migration to Nova Scotia and Quebec in 1782–83.
CARR, Emily is one of the painters of the Group of Seven, who pained the forests and Aboriginal artifacts of the West Coast.
CARTIER, Sir George-Étienne was a reformer after the 1837-38 rebellion who later became one of the Fathers of Confederation from 1864-1867. He was the key architect of Confederation from Quebec. A railway lawyer, Montrealer, close ally of Macdonald and patriotic Canadien, Cartier led Quebec into Confederation and helped negotiate the entry of the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and British Columbia into Canada.
CARTIER, Jacques was the first European to explore the St. Lawrence River and to set eyes on present-day Québec City and Montreal. Between 1534 and 1542, Jacques Cartier made three voyages across the Atlantic, claiming the land for King Francis I of France. Cartier heard two captured guides speak the Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village.” By the 1550s, the name of Canada began appearing on maps.
CARY, Mary Ann Shadd was an outspoken activist in the movement to abolish slavery in the U.S.A. In 1853 she became the first woman publisher in Canada, helping to found and edit The Provincial Freeman, a weekly newspaper dedicated to anti-slavery, black immigration to Canada, temperance
(urging people to drink less alcohol) and upholding British rule.
CASGRAIN, Thérèse was a leader of the women’s suffrage movement in Quebec. She helped Quebec grant the vote to women in 1940.
CHAMPLAIN, Samuel was a French explorer who, in 1604 with Pierre de Monts, established the first European settlements in North America north of Florida, first on St. Croix Island (in present-day Maine), then at Port-Royal, in Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia). In 1608 Champlain built a fortress at what is now Québec City. Champlain allied the colony with the Algonquin, Montagnais and Huron, historic
enemies of the Iroquois, a confederation of five (later six) First Nations who battled with the French settlements for a century.
CHARLES II, King of England granted the Hudson’s Bay Company exclusive trading rights over the watershed draining into the Hudson Bay in 1670.
CLARKSON, Adrienne was the 26th Governor General of Canada and the first of Asian origin. She established the Clarkson Cup in 2005, which is awarded for Canadian women’s hockey.
CURRIE, General Sir Arthur was a reserve officer who became Canada’s greatest soldier in the First World War. In 1918, under his command, the Canadian Corps advanced alongside the French and British Empire troops in the last hundred days. These included the Battle of Amiens on August 8, 1918, Arras, Canal du Nord, Cambrai and Mons.
DAVIES, Robertson was a famous Canadian writer.
DOAN, Catriona Le May carried the flag for Canada after winning a gold medal in speed skating at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games.
DUNN, Lieutenant Alexander Roberts born in present-day Toronto, served in the British Army in the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava (1854) in the Crimean War, and was the first Canadian to be awarded the Victoria Cross.
DUMONT, Gabriel was the Métis’ greatest military leader during the Métis uprisings of 1869 and 1885.
DURHAM, Lord – Lord Durham, an English reformer sent to report on the Rebellions of 1837-38 in Upper and Lower Canada , recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be merged and given responsible government. Lord Durham also said that the quickest way for the Canadiens to achieve progress was to assimilate into English-speaking Protestant culture. This recommendation demonstrated a complete lack of understanding of French Canadians, who sought to uphold the distinct identity of French Canada.
EDWARDS, Phil was a Canadian track and field champion. Born in British Guiana, he won bronze medals for Canada in the 1928, 1932, and 1936 Olympics, then graduated from McGill University Medical School. He served as a captain in the Canadian Army during the Second World War and, as a Montreal doctor, became an expert in tropical diseases.
EGOYAN, Atom is a famous Canadian filmmaker.
ELIZABETH II, Queen of England– Queen Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the Commonwealth, Queen of Canada, and Canada’s head of state.
EVANS, Matthew is one of the most famous of Canadian inventors. Together with Henry Woodward they invented the first electric light bulb and later sold the patent to Thomas Edison, who, more famously, commercialized the light bulb.
FESSENDEN, Reginald is a famous Canadian inventor who contributed to the invention of radio, sending the first wireless voice message in the world.
FLEMING, Sir Sandford is one of the most famous of Canadian inventors. He invented the worldwide system of standard time zones.
FOX, Terry was a British Columbian who lost his right leg to cancer at the age of 18, began a cross-country run, the “Marathon of Hope,” to raise money for cancer research. He became a hero to Canadians. While he did not finish the run and ultimately lost his battle with cancer, his legacy continues through yearly fundraising events in his name.
Important People – Canadian Citizenship Test Help
FRONTENAC, Count Louis de Buade was a leader of Canada’s early fur trade economy who helped to build a French empire in North America that reached from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. He refused to surrender Quebec to the English in 1690, saying: “My only reply will be from the mouths of my cannons!”
GRAY, Lieutenant Robert Hampton was a navy pilot born in Trail, B.C., was killed while bombing and sinking a Japanese warship in August 1945, a few days before the end of the Second World War, and was the last Canadian to receive the Victoria Cross to date.
GRETSKY, Wayne is one of the greatest hockey players of all time and played for the Edmonton Oilers from 1979 to 1988.
GREY, Lord Albert was the Governor General who in 1909 donated the Grey Cup for which Canadian football teams compete.
GROUP OF SEVEN is a group of painters founded in 1920 who developed a style of painting to capture the rugged wilderness landscapes.
HALL, William – Able Seaman William Hall of Horton, Nova Scotia, whose parents were American slaves, was the first black man to be awarded the Victoria Cross for his role in the Siege of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
HANSEN, Rick was a British Columbian who circled the globe in a wheelchair to raise funds for spinal cord research.
HÉBERT, Louis-Phillippe was a celebrated sculptor of historical figures.
HÉMON, Louis was a famous Canadian writer.
HENDERSON, Paul scored the winning goal for Canada in the 1972 Canada-Soviet Summit Series. This goal is often referred to as the goal heard around the world and is still remembered today as an important event in both sports and cultural history.
HERTBERG, Gerhard is a refugee from Nazi Germany and Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
HITLER, Adolf was the Nationalist Socialist (Nazi) dictator of Germany, which invaded Poland and started the Second World War. He conquered much of Europe. Canada joined with its democratic allies in the fight to defeat tyranny by force of arms.
HOPPS, Dr. John A. was a famous Canadian inventor who invented the first cardiac pacemaker, used today to save the lives of people with heart disorders.
HOWE, Joseph was a reformer after the 1837-38 rebellion who worked with Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine and Joseph Howe as well as British governors toward responsible government.
INNIS, Harold was a pioneer thinker of Canada who created great advances in science and technology.
JEWISON, Norman is a famous Canadian filmmaker.
JOHNSON, Pauline is famous Canadian writer.
JOHNSTON, David is Canada’s 28th Governor General.
KOGAWA, Joy is a famous Canadian writer that has diversified Canada’s literary experience.
KONOWAL, Filip – Corporal Filip Konowal, born in Ukraine, showed exceptional courage in the Battle of Hill 70 in 1917, and became the first member of the Canadian Corps not born in the British Empire to be awarded the Victoria Cross.
LA FONTAINE, Sir Louis-Hippolyte was a champion of French language rights, became the first head of a responsible government (similar to a prime minister) in Canada in 1849.
LAURENCE, Margaret is a famous Canadian writer.
LAVAL, Bishop was a leader of Canada’s early fur trade economy who helped to build a French empire in North America that reached from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
LAURIER, Sir Wilfred was the first French-Canadian prime minister after Confederation and encouraged immigration to the West. His portrait is on the $5 bill.
LAZARIDIS, Mike is a famous Canadian inventor and businessman, and together with Jim Balsillie, founder of Research in Motion (RIM), a wireless communications company known for its most famous invention, the Blackberry.
LEACOCK, Stephen was a famous Canadian writer.
LE MOYENE, Pierre, Sieur d’Iberville was a great hero of New France, winning many victories over the English, from James Bay in the north to Nevis in the Caribbean, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
LOGAN, Sir William was a world famous geologist. Born in Montreal in 1798 to Scottish immigrant parents, Logan founded and directed the Geological Survey of Canada from 1842 to 1869 and is considered one of Canada’s greatest scientists. Mount Logan, the highest mountain in Canada, is located in the Yukon and is named after Sir William Logan.
MACPHAIL, Agnes was a farmer and teacher who became the first woman MP in 1921.
MACDONALD, Sir John Alexander was a reformer after the 1837-38 rebellion who later became one of the Fathers of Confederation from 1864-1867. In 1867 he became Canada’s first Prime Minister. Born in Scotland on January 11, 1815, he came to Upper Canada as a child. He was a lawyer in Kingston, Ontario, a gifted politician and a colourful personality. Parliament has recognized January 11 as Sir John A. Macdonald Day. His portrait is on the $10 bill.
MACMILLAN, Sir Ernest is a famous Canadian musician.
MARQUIS de MONTCALM was the leader of the French army in the 1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham against the English. He was killed leading his troops into battle.
MCLUHAN, Marshall was a pioneer thinker of Canada who created great advances in science and technology.
MISTRY, Rohinton is a famous Canadian writer that has diversified Canada’s literary experience.
NELLIGAN, Émile is a famous Canadian writer.
ONDAATJE, Michael is a famous Canadian writer that has diversified Canada’s literary experience.
PENFIELD, Dr. Wilder was a pioneering brain surgeon at McGill University in Montreal, and was known as the greatest living Canadian.
PETERSEN, Oscar is a famous jazz pianist that received the Order of Canada in 1973.
PETITCLERC, Chantal is a world champion wheelchair racer and Paralympic gold medalist.
POLYANI, John is a Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
RICHLER, Mordecai is a famous Canadian writer.
RIEL, Louis was the leader of an armed uprising of 12,000 Métis of the Red River in 1869 and seized Fort Garry (now Winnipeg). Ottawa retook Fort Garry in 1870 and Riel fled to the USA. When Manitoba was brought into Confederation, Riel was elected an MP but never took his seat. He led a second rebellion in present-day Saskatchewan in 1885 when Métis rights were again threatened by westward settlement. Riel was captured, tried and executed for treason, a decision that was strongly opposed in Quebec.
RIOPELLE, Jean-Paul was a member of Les Automatistes of Quebec, and was a pioneer of modern abstract art in the 1950s.
ROBERTS, Sir Charles G.D. was was a famous Canadian writer.
ROSS, Major General Robert – In 1813 the Americans burned Government House and the Parliament Buildings in York (now Toronto). In retaliation in 1814, Major-General Robert Ross led an expedition from Nova Scotia that burned down the White House and other public building in Washington, D.C. Ross died in battle soon afterwards and was buried in Halifax with full military honours.
SALABERRY, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de – In 1813, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry and 460 soldiers, mostly French Canadiens, turned back 4,000 American invaders at Châteauguay, south of Montreal.
SECORD, Laura – In 1813, Laura Secord, pioneer wife and mother of five children, made a dangerous 19-mile (30-km) journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon of a planned American attack (War of 1812). Herbravery contributed to victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams. She is recognized as a heroine to this day.
SERVICE, Robert is a famous Canadian poet who celebrated the Gold Rush of the 1890s in the Yukon.
SIMCOE, Lieutenant-Colonel John Graves was Upper Canada’s first Lieutenant Governor and founder of the City of York (now Toronto). Simcoe also made Upper Canada the first province in the British Empire to abolish slavery in 1833.
SMITH, Michael is a Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
SPAR Aerospace / National Research Council invented the Canadarm, a robotic arm used in outer space.
STANLEY, Lord Frederick donated, in 1892, the Stanley Cup that is the prize for which the men’s National Hockey League compete. He was a passionate supporter of Hockey and the 6th Governor General of Canada.
STOWE, Dr. Emily was the first Canadian woman to practice medicine in Canada and the founder of the women’s suffrage movement in Canada.
STEELE, Sir Sam was one of Canada’s most colourful frontier heroes who came from the ranks of the Mounties in the last quarter of the 1800s.
STRATHCONA, Lord Donald Smith was the Scottish-born director of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). He drove the last spike in the railway out to the west coast, completing a powerful symbol of Canadian unity, on November 7, 1885.
TACHÉ, Sir Étienne-Paschal was a reformer after the 1837-38 rebellion who later became one of the Fathers of Confederation from 1864-1867.
TALON, Jean was a leader of Canada’s early fur trade economy who helped to build a French empire in North America that reached from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
TAYLOR, Richard E. is a Nobel-Prize winning scientist from Canada.
TECUMSEH, Chief led his Shawnee nation to support British soldiers in Canada’s defence to defeat the American invasion of Canada from 1812-1814.
TILLEY, Sir Leonard was an elected official and Father of Confederation from New Brunswick. suggested the term Dominion of Canada in 1864. He was inspired by Psalm 72 in the Bible which refers to dominion from sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earth.” This phrase embodied the vision of building a powerful, united, wealthy and free country that spanned a continent. The title was written into the Constitution, was used officially for about 100 years, and remains part of our heritage today.
TEWKSBURY, Mark is an Olympic gold medalist and prominent activist for gay and lesbian Canadians.
TRIQUET, Paul – Captain Paul Triquet of Cabano, Quebec, earned the Victoria Cross leading his men and a handful of tanks in the attack on Casa Berardi in Italy in 1943 during the Second World War, and was later a Brigadier.
TURNER-BAILEY, Marjorie was an Olympian from Nova Scotia and a descendant of black Loyalists, escaped slaves and freed men and women of African origin who in the 1780s fled to Canada from America, where slavery remained legal until 1863.
VICTORIA, Queen – the Queen of Canada at the time of Confederation in 1867.
WELLINGTON, Duke of – The Duke of Wellington sent some of his best soldiers to defend Canada in 1814. He then chose Bytown (Ottawa) as the endpoint of the Rideau Canal, part of a network of forts
to prevent the U.S.A. from invading Canada again. Wellington, who defeated Napoleon in 1815, herefore played a direct role in founding the national capital.
WILLAN, Healey is a famous Canadian musician.
WOLFE, Brigadier James was the commander of the British army in the 1759 Battle of Abraham against the French. He was killed leading his troops in battle.
WOODWARD, Henry is one of the most famous of Canadian inventors. Together with Matthew Evans they invented the first electric light bulb and later sold the patent to Thomas Edison, who, more famously, commercialized the light bulb.
Important People – Canadian Citizenship Test Help
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